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Skin Disorders 1


Skin Disorders Outline




Skin Cancers


Basal Cell Carcinomas - Most common kind of skin cancers. Look like small pearls or waxy looking nodules. 95% of these cancers are cured with 99% survival rate after 5 years.











Shingles - Shingles is a viral infection that causes a painful rash. Although shingles can occur anywhere on your body, it most often appears as a single stripe of blisters that wraps around either the left or the right side of your torso. Shingles is caused by the varicella-zoster virus — the same virus that causes chickenpox.









Squamous Cell Carcinomas - 2nd most common skin cancers. Look like open sores or ulcers that don't seem to heal.









Melanoma - Least frequently seen form of skin cancer but also the most deadly, but can also appear in the intestines, eyes, brain, spinal cord & other tissues. Very aggressive cancer and spreads quickly. Can be recognized because they look like moles or mollie lesions that change shape & color, grow asymmetrically, have uneven borders and can appear anywhere on the body. #1 type of cancer in people ages 25-29.






Scabies - Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabieivar. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.









Actinic Keratosis - Rough area of sun damaged skin indicated by dysplastic cell growth (abnormal cell growth). Can become cancerous and are sometimes referred to as "precancers".









Sebaceous Hyperplasias - Small donut shaped lesions that sometimes look ilk large, open comedones (blackheads) caused by sun damage.













Seborrheic Keratoses - Large, flat, crusty-looking brown, black, yellowish, gray or sometimes flesh colored lesions that are often found on the faces of older clients with sun-damaged skin.













Solar Freckles - Lentigenes or "liver spots" caused by sun exposure.











Acne Noninflammatory / Inflammatory Acne Lesions - Inflammatory = red & swollen. Noninflammatory =

not red, not swollen. Black Heads & White Heads are typically noninflammatory lesions.


Grade 1 Acne - Open & closed comedones with occasional pimple.

Grade 2 Acne - Very large number of closed comedones with occasional pustules or papules.

Grade 3 Acne - Very inflamed and red, comedones and many papules and pustules.

Grade 4 Acne - Known as Cystic Acne with many deep cysts and scar formation.





Papules - pre-pimple stage. Pustules - pimple state. Macules - post-pimple state, red & inflamed.










Excoriation - damage from poor acne treatment, self-picking, scraping that leads to scarring or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.










Rosacea - also known as Acne Rosacea and/or Adult Acne. Red, flushing diffuse redness, may feel hot, areas of












Telangiectasias or Couperose which are distended but not broken capillaries. The

yeast Helicobacter pylori is thought to be involved in rosacea.














Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea - diffuse facial redness, patchy redness in the nose & cheeks & has the tendency to turn red easily.












Papulopustular Rosacea - often resembles acne but often with no clogged pores or comedones present. May have a lot of redness and look like dehydrated, wrinkled appearance and may sting.











Phymatous Rosacea - thickened appearance & results in enlargement of nose or other facial areas known as Rhinophyma. Can be mistakenly thought to be caused by alcoholism.

















Occular Rosacea occurs in the eye, eyelids, shows redness, swollen eyelids (Chalazia).


















Granulomatous Rosacea - hard, nodular papules that may be red, yellowish, brown and may have multiple papules that are identical in size & shape.

















Hordeolums - infected tear ducts, also called styes.
















Perifollicular Inflammation - inflammation of the follicle walls inside of the follicle.
















Transient erythema - redness that comes & goes.

Basal Cell Carcinomas.
Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Actinic Karatosis
Sebaceous Hyperplasias
Secorrheic Keratoses
Solar Treckles (Lentigenes) or "liver spots" caused by sun exposure.

Skin Conditions and Descriptions (from your text book)

Actinic Keratosis - Actinic keratosis (AK) is the most common precancer that forms on skin damaged by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun and/or indoor tanning. Solar keratosis is another name for the condition. AKs result from long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.












Adult Acne - Adult acne, or post-adolescent acne, is acne that occurs after age 25. For the most part, the same factors that cause acne in adolescents are at play in adult acne. The four factors that directly contribute to acne are: excess oil production, pores becoming clogged by “sticky” skin cells, bacteria, and inflammation.


Asphyxiated Skin - (Alipidid Skin) Asphyxiated skin is the type of skin that due to lack of blood circulation or due to the application of improper astringent type of cosmetic products, has completely obstructed the pilosebaceous follicle. (A typical pilosebaceous unit is composed of a sebaceous gland, the hair follicle, and the arrector pili muscle. Sebaceous glands are found on the entire surface of the skin except for the palms and soles. A capillary network connects sebaceous glands to the systemic circulation.)


Comedones - Comedones are the skin-colored, small bumps (papules) frequently found on the forehead and chin of those with acne. A single lesion is a comedo. Open comedones are blackheads; black because of surface pigment (melanin), rather than dirt. Closed comedones are whiteheads; the follicle is completely blocked.


Couperose Skin / Telangiectasia



Enlarged Pores









Poor Elasticity



Sebaceous Hyperplasia



Solar Comedones

Sun Damage (actinic damage) 


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